Kundan Meena Jewellery Manufacturing process Step By Step

The most unique jewellery that includes many unique steps like Ghadai, Khudai, Meenakari and Jadai.


As we all know that Rajasthan is always known for its heritage. Either it is a matter of architecture, clothes or jewellery. Kundan Meena Jewellery is also known as Jaipuri and Bikaneri Jewellery. as is it from jaipur and bikaner. It is inspired by Rajasthani art and nature. Kundan Meena jewellery originally came from the Mughal era. It involves many unique processes in manufacturing. This is the only type of jewellery that is completely handcrafted.

Let's talk about its unique processes...


The first step is designing, to begin with, something. It is a process of stimulating ideas, opinions, and research. The first and very important step in designing is research. Before starting designing, research is very important not only in jewellery but also in every field. After research, one must take inspiration to design. Inspiration can be anything, such as nature, flowers; artistry is the inspiration in designing jewellery. After deciding on an inspiration designer takes a few motifs out of inspiration that he/she can work on. Then make some sketches using research work and motifs. Finalizes it after examining all manufacturing techniques. I will also write on the complete design process very soon...

jewellery designing

Ghat (Ghadai)

Once our design is finalized then it gets into the manufacturing process. Here we are talking about the manufacturing process of Kundan Meena Jewellery. Hence in Kundan Meena manufacturing Ghat (Mold) is the first step. A Ghat is a frame that is the base of any piece. There are several steps involved in this process. First Ghadia (the person who makes ghat is known as Ghadia) makes a few thin strips of gold using a rolling machine and other cutting tools. Then strips are cut, coiled, and shaped according to the design with the help of tweezers and small tools. This process is set on the slate. This process is known as Saidai. Once the design is finalized as a design, it gets solder to create a piece. And the remaining metal is cut from the base. This waste metal is melted and reusable in another piece. Now our ghat is ready next step is chilayi.

kundan meena sadai process
kundan meena ghat process


Both Khudai and Chilayi are the same process. Sometimes people get confused, but both are similar and the meaning of Hindi words means engraving. Engraving is a process of etching patterns on a piece of Jewelery (Ghat) using small instruments. This work can be done on both sides of Jewellery depending on the design. The patterns are mostly inspired by nature and flowers. The person who does this work must have so much patience and concentration to do this work. While doing this process gold dust is produced which is melted and recycled.

kundan meena chilayi process


Meenakari is the most beautiful process of Kundan Meena jewelery. I personally love this process, it takes our jewelery pieces to the next level. As the name suggests, Meenakari is a very important part of Kundan Meena Jewelery. It is a process of colouring a piece of jewellery. The person doing this work is known as Meenakar and if spoken in English, it is called Enamelling in English. In this process, the colors of the glass are crushed and mixed with some water, and filled in the pattern that we had engraved on the piece of jewellery. It is properly heated to a particular temperature to fuse the colors. The more the color is used the more it will be heated so that the colors fuse properly in the pattern. Mostly red, green, blue, white, and black are used, but now florescent colours are also in trend, such as parrot green, sky blue, etc. If a lot of colours are used in a single design then it is called Pacharanga Meena. Once Meena is done, it is cleaned with a filer to make it shiny and smooth. After the Meena process is completed, the pieces are polished and processed to the next level, which is the most important and final process that is "Jadai".

meenakari process


Last but not least, after Meena, Jadai is the next and final stage in which the gems are set. But it is not easy, there are several steps involved before setting the gems. First, the piece of jewelery will be covered with paper to protect Meena from the backside and affix that piece to a wooden holder called a hundi. Then the lac fuses into the holes where we need to set the gems. Gems can be rubies, emeralds, pearls, and polkis (uncut diamonds). But polki is commonly used in Kundan Meena Jewellery, rubies and other stones are for design. Polki diamonds are flat so it is fixed with silver foil (called dank) to increase polki's shine and strength. Now these polki and other gems will be fused into lac according to the design. This process is known as the padh. Now the Kundan (24kt gold foil) will be cut by cutter into small pieces and fused between the polki and the mold gap. Kundan should not touch the finger of Jadiya (the person who does Jadai), so he uses some tools. once all the gaps are filled then jadiya gives it shine and finish called chilayi. Concentration is needed throughout this process, as polki and Meena can damage (as the saying "a miss of a moment may result accident"). and now our beautiful jewellery piece is ready...

polki chatai
kundan meena jadai process
kundan meena jadai process

Piroi (beading)

Now there is still a process that gives a beautiful shape to our jewellery, that is Piroi (beading). A jewellery piece is incomplete without Piroi, it does not come in the process of manufacture, but piroi is a very important part of the kundan meena jewellery. 

kundan meena piroi process